Although the Moors came to be associated with Muslims, the name Moor pre-dates Islam.
It derives from the small Numidian Kingdom of Maure of the 3rd century
BCE in what is now northern central and western part of Algeria and a
part of northern Morocco. The name came to be applied to people of the
entire region. "They were called Maurisi by the Greeks, and Mauri by the
Romans." During that age, the Maure or Moors were trading partners of
Carthage, the independent city state founded by Phoenicians. During the
second Punic War between Carthage and Rome, two Moorish Numidian kings
took different sides, Syphax with Carthage, Masinissa with the Romans,
decisively so at Zama. Thereafter, the Moors entered into treaties with
Rome. Under King Jugurtha collateral violence against merchants brought
war. Juba, a later king, was a friend of Rome. Eventually, the region
was incorporated into the Roman Empire as the provinces of Mauretania
Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana; the area around Carthage already
being the province of Africa. Roman rule was beneficial and effective
enough so that these provinces became fully integrated into the empire.



From Italian Venetian Black-a-Moor exotic expensive jewelry, lamps and sculptures,Moors in past and today's
European flags and Coat of Arms. To new German Pope Benedict's Moorish roots. A secret story is being revealed and concealed.
Blac
Neither Vandal nor Byzantine exercised an effective rule, the interior
being under Moorish Berber control For over 50 years, the Berbers
resisted Arab armies from the east. Especially memorable was that led by
Kahina the Berber prophetess of the Awras, during 690–701. Yet by the
92nd lunar year after the Hijra, the Arab Muslims had prevailed across
North Africa.




In 711 CE, the now Islamic Moors conquered Visigothic Christian
Hispania. Under their leader, a general named Tariq ibn-Ziyad, they
brought most of Iberia under Islamic rule in an eight-year campaign.
They moved northeast across the Pyrenees Mountains but were defeated by
the Frank Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732 CE.


The Moorish state fell into civil conflict in the 750s. The Moors ruled
in North Africa and in the Iberian peninsula for several decades, except
for areas in the northwest (such as Asturias, where they were defeated

at the battle of Covadonga) and the largely Basque regions in the
Pyrenees. Though the number of original "Moors" remained small, many
native Iberian inhabitants converted to Islam. According to Ronald
Segal, some 5.6 million of Iberia's 7 million inhabitants were Muslim by
1200 CE, virtually all of them native inhabitants. The persecution and
forced conversion to Catholicism of the Muslim population during the
time of the Christian Reconquista in the second part of the 15th century
caused a mass exodus. This is considered the main reason why the number
of Muslims had shrunk to a relatively small fraction of the total
population by 1500.


In a process of decline, the Al Andalus had broken up into a number of
Islamic-ruled fiefdoms, or taifas, which were partly consolidated under
the Caliphate of Córdoba.


The Asturias, a small northwestern Christian Iberian kingdom, initiated
the Reconquista (the "reconquest") soon after the Islamic conquest in
the 8th century. Christian states based in the north and west slowly
extended their power over the rest of Iberia. The Navarre, Galicia,
León, Portugal, Aragón, Catalonia or Marca Hispanica, and Castile began a
process of expansion and internal consolidation during the next several
centuries under the flag of Reconquista.

Reconstruction of costumes of Moorish nobility from a German book published in 1880

In 1212, a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of Alfonso
VIII of Castile drove the Muslims from Central Iberia. The Portuguese
side of the Reconquista ended in 1249 with the conquest of the Algarve
under Afonso III, the first Portuguese monarch to claim the title King
of Portugal and the Algarve.


However, the Moorish Kingdom of Granada continued for three more
centuries in the southern Iberia. This kingdom is known in modern times
for magnificent architectural works such as the Alhambra palace. On
January 2, 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in Granada
surrendered to armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the
marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, the
Catholic Monarchs). The remaining Muslims and Jews were forced to leave
Spain, or convert to Roman Catholic Christianity or be killed for not
doing so. In 1480, Isabella and Ferdinand instituted the Inquisition in
Spain, as one of many changes to the role of the church instituted by
the monarchs. The Inquisition was aimed mostly at Jews and Muslims who
had overtly converted to Christianity but were thought to be practicing
their faiths secretly — called respectively marranos and moriscos. The
Inquisition also attacked heretics who rejected Roman Catholic
orthodoxy, including alumbras who practiced a personal mysticism or
spiritualism. They represented a significant portion of the peasants in
some territories, such as Aragon, Valencia or Andalusia. In the years
from 1609 to 1614, they were systematically expelled by the government.
Henri Lapeyre has estimated that this affected 300,000 out of an
estimated total of 8 million inhabitants of the peninsula. However many
of them were converted to Christianity and settled permanently. This is
clearly indicated by a "high mean proportion of ancestry from North
African (10.6%)" that "attests to a high level of religious conversion
(whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social
and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of
descendants.".




In the meantime, the tide of Islam had rolled not just to Iberia, but
also eastward, through India, the Malayan peninsula, and Indonesia up to
the Philippines. This was one of the major islands of an archipelago
which the Spaniards had reached during their voyages westward from the
New World. By 1521, the ships of Magellan and other Spanish explorers
had reached that island archipelago, which they named Las Islas de
Filipinas, after Philip II of Spain. In Mindanao, the Spaniards named
the kris-bearing people as Moros or 'Moors'. Today in the Philippines,
this ethnic group of people in Mindanao, who are generally Muslims, are
called 'Moros'. This identification of Islamic people as Moros persists
in the modern Spanish language spoken in Spain, and as Mouros in the
modern Portuguese language and Maure.


According to historian Richard A. Fletcher, 'the number of Arabs who
settled in Iberia was very small. "Moorish" Iberia does at least have
the merit of reminding us that the bulk of the invaders and settlers
were Moors, i.e Berbers from Algeria and Morocco.' Aline Angoustures
says that the Berbers were about 900,000 and the Arabs about 90,000 in
Iberia.



Beside its usage in historical context, Moor and Moorish (Italian and
Spanish: moro, French: maure, Portuguese: mouro / moiro, Romanian: maur)
is used to designate an ethnic group speaking the Hassaniya Arabic
dialect. They inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, Western Sahara,
Tunisia, Morocco, Niger and Mali. In Niger and Mali, these peoples are
also known as the Azawagh Arabs, after the Azawagh region of the Sahara.


In modern, colloquial Spanish, the sometimes pejorative term "Moro"
refers to any Arab. Similarly, in modern, colloquial Portuguese, the
term "Mouro" is primarely used as a designation for North Africans and
secondarily as a derogatory and ironic term by northern Portuguese to
refer to the inhabitants of the southern parts of the country.


In the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, many residents call the
local Muslim population in the Southern islands Moros. They also
self-identify that way . The term was introduced by the Spanish
colonizers. Within the context of Portuguese colonization, in Sri Lanka
(Portuguese Ceylon), Muslims of Arab origin are called Moors.



The initial rule of the Moors in the Iberian peninsula under this
Caliphate of Córdoba is generally regarded as tolerant in its acceptance
of Christians, Muslims and Jews living in the same territories. The
Caliphate of Córdoba collapsed in 1031 and the Islamic territory in
Iberia fell under the rule of the Almoravid dynasty. This second stage
inaugurated an era of Moorish rulers guided by a version of Islam that
left behind the tolerant practices of the past.

 

Tags: Africa, Europe., History, Moors, Northern, The, and, in, of, the

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interesting of course....but no one should  be surprised  that   history  will always  be rewritten by those that  are in power.. Many rulers   wan to proof  that  their position  is the  logical   consequence  of a process  that  started   centuries   ago, and  has inevitably led  in a process  of progress  culminating  in their position. there was  a time that  even a divine topping was  added  to it.  alas  history   had  no logic, and many   a ruler  was  playing  with his  mistress  when the  enemy was  gathering at the  gates. and many  a battle was  ended   after  half  an hour  hacking sword on each other.   just  trying  hacking  into something, then  you  know  why  ancient warfare  does not last  as long as  now, when  you can pilot  drones from the  comfort  of your  monitor  at an air conditionated   office  in texas. anyhow...

the  point  i want to  make, in those   days, before  some  merchants suddenly saw profit  in shipping slaves  to  the new west, race  and color  did not  matter  that  much. you  had enemies  of course, thise  you  would  try to kill,  and you  had  friends, those  at times  you  would betray..but  as such it  did not  matter  so much  how they looked  like. racism    was  invented  once there was  money to be made. 

the  then greatest  power  that had existed,  the roman   empire, had been  color blind. slaves  could be white, mostly would  be white. the  empire  stretched  into  northern  africa,   and emperors  could come  from  every part. often they came  from  spain,  but least three  of them were  african,   black. not that  it mattered a lot, it just was  part  of their description.,  it was  just  mentioned  by the way,  so nothing  special...most likely  there  ve been more of them. equally when  the portuguese  ships  started  to sail  south   direction africa, they n egociated treaties  with the local  african  kingdoms, rather  than trying  to subjugate them. the  obi  of benin,   now  part  of nigeria, thus  exchanged  ambassadors  with  the  king of portugal. of   course  some other  warlords  of africa  started  to sell  slaves  to the whites  as well,   but nothing   was  then  set  in racist  tones  (yet)

the  problem really  started  with  some  fundamentalist  catholic  spanish kings. the  reconquista  was  more  against  muslims than against  blacks, but then for the  first  time the bible was  used  to proof  their  own divine superiotity  as catholic  male  whites over  the rest of the world,   including  muslims,  blacks, chinese,   animals, and even their  own women. according to the  then  interpretation,  even   a white  woman  had  no soul,    and thus could not go to heaven, and  thus  was  as  good as  an animal. on the  other  hand,  an african male could  be christened    and thus  saved...

peculiar  times, but  racism,   and sexism as well grew  out of  a supremacist  reading  of the bible. and to serve the best interest  of the  rulers.

bit  obviously  before  that  happened,  the  worl was  colorblind, and some  of the  most  refined  culture came  out of africa equally  out of china...but not  that  much out of  europe,  one of its  greatest  rules, charles  the great, signed  his documents  with   an  X , because  he could not read  nor  write,  and  he was  not  even   ashamed  to admit it

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