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Check out the playlist of various videos base on the history of Africa

1000 BC: the Queen of Sheba visits king Solomon of Israel
300 BC: the city of Axum is founded
50: Axum rules Eritrea
300: Axum conquers southern Arabia
320: the Syrian monk Frumentius converts Ethiopian emperor Ezana to Christianity
500: Axum conquers southern Sudan
525: King Ella Kaleb of Axum annexes Yemen
5xx: Polynesian people settle Madagascar
5xx: the Christian kingdom of Dongola rules over Sudan
6xx: Arabs colonize East African trade towns including Zanzibar
710: Arabs invade Eritrea and destroy the Axumite empire
8xx: the empire of Ghana controls Mali, Mauritania, Guinea and Senegal
982 BC: Menelik I, son of the Queen of Sheba, becomes Ethiopia's first emperor
1000: Queen Yodit defeats the last Axumite king Del Na'od
1000: Timbuktu is founded in Africa by Muslim traders
1076: Almoravids from Morocco defeat the kingdom of Ghana and seize Mali and Mauritania
10xx: Great Zimbabwe is the capital of a wealthy Shona kingdom that trades with Asia
10xx: the Shona empire forms between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers
1137: the Zagwe Dynasty is founded in Ethiopia and the capital is moved from Axum to Lalibela
1250: Sudan (Dongola) is conquered by the Mamaluks of Egypt
1250: Sundiata Keita founds the empire of Mali
1270: Yekuno Amlak ends the Zagwe dynasty and founds the Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia
12xx: the empire of Ghana rules over Mali and Senegal
12xx: the Mali empire expands to Guinea
130x: kingdoms of Kongo, Luba, Kuba, Lunda in the Congo
130x: Mali Muslim emperor Mansa Musa hires Arab architects to rebuild Timbuktu and Djenne
13xx: the kingdoms of Ife, Oyo, Benin in Nigeria engage in the slave trade
130x: the empire of Mali expands to the Atlantic
132x: Amda Siyon becomes negus of Ethiopia and expands the empire
1325: Mansa Musa, the king of Mali, makes his pilgrimage to Mecca carrying 500 slaves and 100 camels
14xx: Bantu people invade the eastern half of South Africa
14xx: Gao raids Mali's capital Niani

1424: prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal sends the first expedition to Africa
1430: Portugal trades slaves within Africa
1436: Afonso de Baldaya reaches Rio de Oro on behalf of prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal
1444: the first public sale of African slaves by Europeans takes place at Lagos, Portugal
1464: Gao invades all of Mali

1472: Portugal explores Gabon and Sao Tome
1482: Portugal founds the first European trading post in Africa (Elmina, Gold Coast)
1488: Moroccans invade the African kingdom of Mali
1495: Cape Verde becomes a Portuguese colony
15xx: Portugal establishes a trade post in Mozambique
15xx: Portugal raids Eastern Africa trade towns
15xx: the Shonas found the Rozwi state
15xx: Tutsis from Ethiopia establish a feudal system in the Hutu lands (Rwanda and Burundi)
1500: Portugal "discovers" Madagascar
1506: a Christian, Nzinga Mbemba, becomes king of the Kongo Kingdom
1533:  General Ahmad Gran invades Ethiopia
1542: Portugal helps Ethiopia repel an Arab invasion
1571: Portugal attacks Mali
1575: Mali defeats Portugal
1575: Portugal establishes a trade post in Luanda (Angola) to buy slaves for Brazil
1591: the Gao empire collapses
160x: BAntu people invade Namibia


16xx: kingdoms of Kanembornu and Hausa in Niger
1632: Fasiladas founds the modern empire of Ethiopia with capital in Gondar
1637: Holland captures Portugal's main trading post in Africa, Elmina
1641: Holland captures Portugal's trading posts in Sao Tome and Luanda
1648: Portugal recaptures Sao Tome and Luanda
1651: Britain occupies Gambia
1652: Holland establishes a trade post at the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), which develops into a colony of "boers" with its own language (Afrikaans)
1659: France invades Senegal
1660: Portugal defeats the kingdom of Kongo and renames it Zaire
1674: Arabs invade Mauritania
1699: Arabs from Oman invade Zanzibar
17xx: the Ashanti kingdom conquers Ghana with capital at Kumasi, and thrives on the slave trade
17xx:  Kingdoms of Ouadai and Baguirmi (Chad) trade slaves captured in the south
1779: the Boers are defeated by the Xhusa in the first Bantu war (South Africa)
1787: Freed slaves found Sierra Leone, where slaves freed by British forces converge ("krios")
1792: king Andrianampoinimerina of the Merinas invades half of Madagascar and moves his capital to Antananarive
1796: After France invades Holland, Holland surrenders Melaka/Malacca, Sri Lanka and the Cape of Good Hope to Britain
18xx: the Zulus under king Shaka invade nearby kingdoms in South Africa causing mass migrations (difaqane)
1800: 20,000 slaves from central Africa are sold every year in Egypt
1806: Britain annexes the Dutch colony of the Cape (South Africa)
1807: Britain abolishes the slave trade
1810: king Andrianampoinimerina of Merina dies and is succeeded by king Radama I who continues to expand his rule over Madagascar
1820: king Moshoeshoe founds the Sotho kingdom of Basutoland to escape the Zulu expansion
1820: Britain dispatches 5,000 settlers to the Cape
1820: Britain recognizes Madagascar's independence under the Merina king
1822: Egyptian ruler Mehemet Ali conquers Sudan on behalf of the Ottoman empire
1822: US philanthropists found the state of Liberia for freed slaves
1828: king Radama I of Merina (Madagascar) dies and is succeeded by queen Ranavalona I
1830: Mzilikazi founds the Ndebele state
1832: Oman moves its capital to the slave trade center of Zanzibar
1834: Britain abolishes slavery in South Africa, and 40,000 black slaves are technically free
1834: Mailikazi of the Nbedele people invades the Rozwi state
1836: Fleeing British authority, Boers migrate ("the Great Trek"), massacring thousands of Zulus and kidnapping hundreds of black children, and found the Orange Free State and the Transvaal
1839: king Sabhuza I of Swaziland dies and the boers invade the country
1843: Britain annexes Natal (South Africa)
1843: Swazi, leader of the Barabuza, declares the independence of Swaziland
1847: Liberia becomes independent under Joseph Roberts, which recreates slavery
1849: Libreville is founded as an enclave for freed slaves
1850: Arabs sell into slavery about 100,000 Africans per year
1851: Britain seizes Lagos in Nigeria
1855: Kasa becomes emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia
1861: queen Ranavalona I of Merina (Madagascar) dies and is succeeded by king Radama II
1863: king Radama II of Merina (Madagascar) dies and is succeeded by queen Rasoherina
1865: 15,000,000 Africans have been deported in the Americas since the slave trade began, and 30-40 million have died before reaching the Americas
1866: diamond deposits are discovered at Kimberley, South Africa
1866: Diamond deposits are discovered at Kimberley, South Africa
1867: Diamonds are discovered in South Africa
1868: Lij Kasa conquers Amhara, Gojjam, Tigray and Shoa in Ethiopia
Apr 1868: British general Robert Napier defeats Ethiopia at Magdala and the Ethiopian emperor Theodore commits suicide
1868: Basutoland/Lesotho becomes a British colony
1868: Tewodros of Ethiopia is defeated by the British and commits suicide
1869: Italy buys land in Eritrea
1870: the Ndebele relocate their capital to Bulawayo
1870: Guinea Bissau becomes a separate Portuguese colony from Cape Verde
1871: Kimberley attracts thousands of miners and becomes the biggest man-made hole in the world (2,722 kg of diamonds would be extracted by 1914)
1872: the chieftain Tigrayan becomes emperor Yohannes IV of Ethiopia
1874: Britain defeats the Ashanti kingdom (Ghana) and the Gold Coast becomes a British protectorate
1877: Transvaal becomes a British colony
Jan 1879: Zulu warriors armed with spears massacre the British army at the battle of Isandhlwana
Jul 1879: Britain defeats the Zulus at Ulundi in South Africa, imprisons their ruler Cetewayo and disintegrates their empire
Dec 1880: Britain fights the first war against the Boers in South Africa
Mar 1881: Britain signs a peace treaty with Paul Kruger's Boers acknowledging their independence in Transvaal
1881: Muhammad Ahmad rebels against Egypt and establishes an Islamic state in Sudan (the Mahdists)
1884: German explorer Carl Peters begins to colonize Tanganyika
1884: Cameroon becomes a German protectorate
1885: France colonizes Central Africa
1885: Britain establishes a protectorate over Bechuanaland (Botswana)
1885: Britain establishes a protectorate over the Delta region in Nigeria
1885: Britain is defeated in Sudan by the Mahdists
1885: an international conference at Berlin awards Congo to the king of Belgium, Mozambique and Angola to Portugal, Namibia and Tanzania to Germany, Somalia to Italy, most of western Africa to France, and Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana to Britain
1886: Leopold II of Belgium establishes the Congo Free State over Kongo/Zaire and enacts a policy of ethnic cleansing that would reduce the population from 20 million to 8 million by 1908 because of disease, torture or executions
1886: George Goldie founds the Niger Company to administer Nigeria on behalf of Britain
1886: Britain establishes a protectorate over Zanzibar
1886: Gold is discovered in the Boer stronghold of Transvaal, South Africa
1889: Yohannes IV of Ethiopia dies in battle and is succeeded by emperor Menelik II, who founds Addis Abeba as Ethiopia's new capital
1889: Cecil Rhodes begins to colonize the Southern African regions (Rhodesia, South Africa) for the British
1889: Italy invades Eritrea
1890: Rhodes conquers the Ndebele state (which becomes known as Rhodesia) and founds Salisbury (Harare) and is appointed prime minister of the Cape colony In South Africa
1890: Namibia becomes a German colony
1890: the Tutsi kingdom of Rwanda and Burundi becomes the German colony Ruanda-Urundi
1890: Frederick Lugard is appointed military administrator of Uganda by Britain
1891: Nyasaland becomes a British protectorate
1891: France invades the kingdoms of Niger and Guinea
1892: The gold rush brings a railway to Johannesburg in South Africa
1893: Swaziland becomes a British protectorate
1894: Uganda and Kenya become British colonies
1894: the Merina queen abdicates and Madagascar becomes a French colony
1894: Togo becomes a German protectorate
1894: the kingdom of Dahomey is annexed by French West Africa
1894: Belgium conquers eastern Congo from the Arabs
1895: Italy invades Ethiopia
1896: Italy is defeated by Ethiopia at Adowa/Adua and only Eritrea becomes an Italian colony
1896: France conquers southern Chad and Mauritania
1896: France occupies Ouagagougou (Upper Volta)
1897: Somaliland is divided between Italy and Britain
1898: British general Herbert Kitchener conquers Sudan from the Mahdists at the Battle of Omdurman and massacres thousands of Sudanese tribesmen
1898: Muhammad Abdille Hassan resists British occupation in Somaliland
1898: France conquests French Sudan (Mali)
1899: 26,000 Boer civilians die in concentration camps during the war between Britain and the Boers
1899: About 25% of the gold of the world comes from the mines of Johannesburg, South Africa
1899: Britain buys Nigeria from the Niger Company
1900: The French found Fort-Lamy in Chad (later renamed N'Djamena)
1901: British Ghana incorporates northern territories
1902: Lourenco Marques becomes the capital of Mozambique
May 1902: Boers and British sign a peace treaty granting autonomy to South Africa and creating segregation for blacks
1903: France imposes a "head tax" on Cote d'Avoir's population
1903: Britain sends Indians to work on a railway in Kenya
1904: 12,000 British settlers live in Rhodesia
1904: German troops massacre 65,000 members of the Herero tribe in Namibia
1904: Brazzaville becomes the capital of French Central Africa
1905: France occupies all of Madagascar
1906: Guinea becomes part of French West Africa
1908: at the end of the Congo war, the native population has decline by 10-20 million (at least 8 million were killed) and Congo has become a colony of Belgium
1910: The British colonies of Transvaal, Orage Free State, Natal and Cape unite in the Union of South Africa
1910: Gabon (Libreville) is separated from Congo (Brazzaville) but remains a French colony in central Africa
1910: Middle Congo becomes a colony of French Equatorial Africa
1912: the African National Congress is founded to promote the rights of blacks in South Africa
1913: Menelik of Ethiopia dies and is succeeded by Lij Iyasu
1914: Togo is occupied by Britain and France
1914: Frederick Lugard is appointed governor of Nigeria by Britain
1915: South Africa inherits Namibia from Germany
1916: Britain conquers Tanganyika from Germany
1916: France conquers northern Chad (kingdoms of Ouadai and Baguirmi)
1916: Lij Iyasu of Ethiopia is deposed and is succeeded by Menelik's daughter, Zawditu
1916: Belgium conquers Rwanda and Burundi from Germany
1917: Britain suppresses a rebellion in Southern Sudan
1918: France and Britain conquer Cameroon
1919: Upper Volta becomes a separate territory of French West Africa
1920: Britain drops incendiary bombs on rebels in Southern Sudan
1920: There are 20,000 Indians in Kenya
1922: the British settlers of Rhodesia vote to secede from South Africa
1924: the British governor of Sudan, Lee Stack, is assassinated in Cairo
1926: Andre Matswa forms the liberation movement of French Congo
1926: France makes Niamey, a town of 3,000 people, the capital of Niger
1927: South Africa makes it illegal to have casual sex with a person of the other race
1927: Hastings Banda emigrates from Nyasaland to the USA to study
1928: Britain massacres 200 tribesmen in Bahr-al_Jabal, Southern Sudan
1930: Zawditu of Ethiopia dies and is succeeded by Ras Tafari Makonnen, who becomes emperor Haile Selassie I
1930: USA and Britain cut off diplomatic relations with Liberia, which still practices slavery
1930: France completes the railway in the Congo that cost the lives of 17,000 African workers
1931: white Kenyan archaeologist Louis Leakey discovers human stone tool fossils in the Olduvai Gorge of Kenya
1931: Jomo Kenyatta emigrates from Kenya to Britain to study
1934: racial laws forbid blacks from running any business in Rhodesia
1934: South Africa becomes independent
Oct 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia
1937: The Graduates' General Congress is formed to demand independence from Britain in Sudan
1937: The US-educated Nnamdi Azikiwe or "Zik" returns to Nigeria
1941: Britain liberates Ethiopia
1943: William Tubman becomes president of Liberia, a state in which only 3% of the population is free
1944: Felix Houphouet-Boigny founds the Syndicat Agricole Africain in Cote d'Avoire
1944: The Nigerian nationalists Zik and Herbert Macaulay found the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroon
1945: Eritrea becomes a British protectorate
1946: Barthlemey Boganda starts a movement for the independence of Central Africa
1947: France kills thousands of demonstrators in Madagascar
1947: Jomo Kenyatta leads the liberation movement of Kenya
1948: the white government of South Africa creates apartheid to segregate blacks from whites
1948: Kwame Nkrumah founds the Convention People's Party in Ghana
1949: South Africa bans mixed-race marriages
1950: Nkrumah organizes a general strike in Ghana and is arrested by the British
1952: Eritrea and Ethiopia are federated in one country under Haile Selassie
1952: The Mau Mau guerrillas pledge to drive white people out of Kenya
1953: Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland are united in a federation
1953: Ibos and Yorubas riot in Kano, Nigeria
Dec 1953: Britain has arrested 150,000 Mau Mau insurgents
1954: Julius Nyerere founds the Tanganyka African National Union
1954: The CPP wins general elections in British Ghana but the Ashanti start their own National Liberation Movement
1956: British Togo votes to be annexed to Ghana
1956: Amilcar Cabral founds an independence movement in Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde
1956: The Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (MPLA) is founded
1956: Sudan becomes independent but the Christian south rebels against the Muslim rulers
1957: Ghana, under Nkrumah, becomes the first black African country to win independence from a European colonizer
1958: Guinea becomes independent under Sekow Toure, who creates a Maoist one-party state and carries out widespread "purges"
1958: Kenneth Kaunda forms a liberation movement in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)
1958: The All-African Peoples Conference is held in Accra, calling for the liberation of the whole continent
1958: Liberia outlaws racial discrimination
1958: Patrice Lumumba founds the liberation movement of Congo
1959: Tutsis kill Hutu leaders, starting riots that will kill 100,000 Tutsis
1959: Boganda is killed in a mysterious plane crash in Central Africa
1959: End of the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya (13,000 Kenyans and 100 Europeans dead)
1960: British and Italian Somaliland gain independence and merge to form Somalia
1960: Mali becomes independent under Modibo Keita
1960: Senegal becomes independent under Leopold Senghor
1960: Central Africa becomes independent under David Dacko
1960: Mauritania becomes independent under Mokhtar Ould Daddah
1960: Gabon becomes independent under Mba and enjoys an economic boom
1960: Benin becomes independent
1960: Chad becomes independent under dictator Francois Tombalbaye
1960: Niger becomes independent under Hamani Diori
1960: Nigeria becomes independent under prime minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
1960: Belgian Congo (Zaire) becomes independent, with Patrice Lumumba as prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu as president, while the province of Katanga declares its independence under Moise Tshombe
1960: Herman Toivo Ya Toivo form the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), the Namibia liberation movement
1960: the white police of South Africa kills 67 blacks during anti-apartheid demonstrations in Sharpeville
1960: Madagascar becomes independent under Philibert Tsiranana
1960: French Congo (Brazzaville) becomes independent under Fulbert Youlou
1960: Nigeria becomes independent under Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
1960: the African National Congress is banned in South Africa and Nelson Mandela launches armed resistance against the white regime
1960: Cote d'Avoire becomes independent under Houphouet-Boigny and enjoys an economic boom
1960: Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) becomes independent under Maurice Yameogo
1960: French Togo becomes independent under Sylvanus Olympio
1961: Tanganyika becomes independent under Julius Nyerere
1961: Lumumba is assassinated in Congo (Zaire)
1961: Cameroon becomes independent under Ahmadou Ahidjo
1961: Anti-Portuguese riots and guerrilla in Angola by the Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (MPLA), sponsored by the communists, and the Uniao Nacional paraa a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA), sponsored by South Africa
June 1962: The Frente de Libertacao do Mocambique (Frelimo), led by Eduardo Mondlane, starts a liberation war against Portugal in Mozambique
1962: Ethiopian emperor Haile Sellassie dissolves the Eritrean parliament and annexes the country, while Eritreans begin an independence war
1962: Nelson Mandela is arrested in South Africa
1962: Milton Obote leads Uganda to independence but establishes a brutal dictatorship
1962: Rwanda becomes independent under Gregoire Kayitanda, a Hutu, while Tutsis start a guerrilla war
1962: Burundi becomes independent under Tutsi king Mwambutsa IV
1962: Christians in the south of Sudan begin a civil war
1963: the first conference of the Organisation of African Unity is held in Addis Ababa
1963: Chad's government outlaws all opposition parties, triggering civil war with Frolinat
1963: Olympio overthrown and killed in Togo
1963: Alphonse Massamba-Debat seizes power in Congo Brazzaville and steers the country towards socialism
1963: the federation of the Rhodesias dissolves
1963: Katanga accepts integration in the Congo (Zaire) and president Joseph Kasavubu appoints Moise Tshombe prime minister
1963: Tuaregs of the Sahara stage a failed insurrection in Mali
1964: Nothern Rhodesia becomes independent and is renamed Zambia
1964: Nyasaland becomes independent and is renamed Malawi under Hastings Banda who declares himself president for life
1963: Zanzibar becomes an independent sultanate
1963: Kenya becomes independent under Kenyatta
1964: Kenyatta outlaws all parties but his own
1964: the sultanate of Zanzibar is overthrown and Zanzibar is united to Tanganyika to become Tanzania
1964: Pierre Mulele leads the Simba rebellion in Congo
1964: Samora Machel leads Frelimo's first military attacks against the Portuguese in Mozambique
1965: Lumumba of Congo is overthrown by Belgium and USA that install Joseph Desire Mobutu (later renamed Mobutu Sese Seko)
1965: Gambia becomes independent under Dawda Jawara
1965: Riots in Nigeria
1965: Hutus win the elections in Burundi but Tutsi king Mwambutsa IV refuses to appoint a Hutu prime minister
1965: white leader Ian Smith declares the independence of (Southern) Rhodesia, not recognized by Britain
1966: Yameogo of Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) is deposed by Maurice Lamizana
1966: Mobutu of Congo hangs former prime minister Evariste Kimba and cabinet members in front of a large crowd
1965: Seretse Khama wins the first national elections and becomes prime minister of Bechunaland
1966: Bechuanaland becomes independent under Seretse Khama and changes name to Botswana
1966: Ntare V deposes his father Mwambutsa IV in Burundi but is overthrown by Michel Micombero in a military coup
1966: SWAPO of Namibia launches guerrilla attacks against the occupying troops of South Africa
1966: Jean-Bedel Bokassa ousts Dacko in Central Africa and installs a brutal dictatorship with help from France
1966: Balewa is overthrown and killed in a failed military coup, and is succeeded by Yakubu Gowon
1966: Basutoland declares independence and changes name to Lesotho
1966: Kwame Nkrumah is overthrown in Ghana by the army
1967: Ojukow declares Biafra independent from Nigeria, following massacres of Ibos and sparking a civil war
1967: the two factions involved in the Nigerian civil war agree to a 48-hour ceasefire so they can watch Pele play an exhibition game in Lagos
1967: Mba dies and El Hadj Omar Bongo seizes power in Gabon with help from Morocco, turning the richest African country into a one-party corrupt mess
1967: Nyere turns Tanzania into a Maoist state, thereby destroying the economy and turning Tanzania into one of the poorest countries in the world
1967: Gnassingbe Eyadema seizes power in Togo
1968: Swaziland becomes independent
1968: Samora Machel proclaims Marxism-Leninism as the ideology of Frelimo in Mozambique
1968: Pierre Mulele is arrested in Congo, tortured and killed (his limbs amputated one by one)
1960: Keita of Mali is deposed by a coup led by Moussa Traore
1968: Sierra Leone becomes independent under Siaka Stevens
1968: the United Nations imposes economic sanctions on the racial government of Rhodesia, while Joshua Nkomo, Abel Muzorewa, Ndabaningi Sithule, and Robert Mugabe start guerrilla warfare
1968: France saves Tombalbaye of Chad from Muslim rebels
1968: Massamba-Debat is ousted in a coup by Marien Ngouabi
1968: Moussa Treore seizes power in Mali
1968: Mauritius gains independence from Britain
1969: minister Tom Mboya is assassinated in Kenya
1969: Eduardo Mondlane, leader of Frelimo in Mozambique, is assassinated
1969: Idi Amin stages a coup in Uganda (300,000 people will die in 8 years of political violence and starvation)
October 1969: Muhammad Siad Barre seizes power in Somalia and turns Somalia into a communist dictatorship
1969: Jaafar Nimeiri seizes power in Sudan
1969: Francisco Macias Nguema seizes power in Equatorial Guinea
1970: Nigeria re-annexes Biafra after one million people died
1971: Mobutu renames Congo as Zaire
1971: Tubman of Liberia dies and is succeeded by William Tolbert
1972: Gabriel Ramanantsoa seizes power in Madagascar and steers the country towards socialism
1972: Mathieu Kerekou seizes power in Dahomey and turns it into a socialist state
1972: Madagascar's president Philibert Tsiranana resigns and is succeeded by Gabriel Ramantsoa
1972: Kaunda outlaws all opposition parties, introduces socialism and turns Zambia into one of the poorest countries in the world
1972: Libya occupies northern Chad in cahoots with Chad's dictator Tombalbaye
1972: 1,000 Tutsis (including king Ntare V) are massacred in Burundi, and in retaliation the Burundi government kills 150,000 Hutus
1972: general Juvenbal Habyarimana stages a coup in Rwanda
1973: France sends troops to help quell Chad's revolt
1973: El-Ouali leads a group of Sahrawi (Western Saharan) students to form the "Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro", or Polisario, fighting for independence from Spain
1974: 200,000 people die of famine in Ethiopia
1974: Mali and Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) fight a border war
September 1974: Haile Selassie of Ethiopia is deposed in coup while Mengistu Haile Mariam seize power and turns the country into a communist state (end of the empire of Ethiopia)
1974: Guinea Bissau gains independence from Portugal under president Luis de Almeida Cabral
1974: Hundreds of people die of starvation in Somalia
1974: Seyni Kountche seizes power in Niger
1975: Didier Ratsiraka seizes power in Madagascar and establishes a socialist state
1975: Cape Verde gains independence from Portugal
1975: Tombalbaye of Chad is deposed by Felix Malloum
1975: Spain withdraws from Western Sahara, Morocco invades Western Sahara and the Polisario proclaims the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and begins an independence war against Morocco
1975: Mozambique becomes independent under Samora Machel of Frelimo, who creates a socialist state, but 600,000 people die of starvation in the next ten years
1975: Nigerian leader Gowon is overthrown by Murtala Ramat Mohammed, who moves the capital to Abuja
January 1975: Angola becomes independent but civil war erupts between UNITA, led by Jonas Savimbi, and MPLA, led by Agostinho Neto, who becomes Angola's first president
March 1975: Cuba and the Soviet Union send "advisors" to the MPLA in Angola
October 1975: South Africa intervenes on the side of UNITA in Angola
1975: The Comoros gain independence from France
1976: Lourenco Marques is renamed Maputo
1976: the Ebola virus is first identified in western Sudan and in a region of Congo
1976: white police massacres 600 blacks during an anti-apartheid uprising in Soweto, South Africa
1976: colonel Jean Baptiste Bagaza, a Tutsi, seizes power in Burundi
July 1976: Israeli commandos storm an Air France plane hijacked by Palestinian terrorists in Entebbe, killing all the Palestinians and scores of Ugandan soldiers that were protecting them
October 1976: Mengitsu of Ethiopia orders the execution of 100,000 dissidents over four years of "red terror"
1976: Renamo is formed by white Rhodesian officers to fight the government of Mozambique
February 1977: Mengitsu of Ethiopia liquidates his political rivals and assumes absolute power
Mar 1977: The Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC) invades Zaire from Angola to overthrow Mobutu, but the coup is repelled by Moroccan troops and Egyptian aircrafts assembled by France
July 1977: Somalia invades the Ogaden region of Ethiopia
August 1977: Mengitsu of Ethiopia declares "total war" against the Eritrean secessionists
1977: Bokassa, known for cannibalism, appoints himself emperor of Central Africa in a ceremony, sponsored by France, that costs the equivalent of the country's entire gross national product
1977: France, Belgium and Morocco help Mobutu repel an Angolan attack on Zaire
1977: Ngouabi of Congo Brazzaville is assassinated in a coup and Massamba-Debat (instigator of the coup) is executed, while Joachim Yhombi-Opango becomes the new president
1977: Riots in Guinea against Toure's communist government
May 1978: The Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC) invades Zaire again, and massacres 80 Europeans and 200 Africans, and this time is repelled by France's Foreign Legion
1978: the Soviet Union and Cuba send troops to support Mengitsu's regime
March 1978: Ethiopia regains the Ogaden from Somalia
1978: Daddah of Mauritania is deposed by Mohammed Khouna Haidallah
1978: Kenyatta of Kenya dies and is succeeded by Daniel Arap Moi, who establishes an even more brutal dictatorship
1978: Abel Muzorewa succeeds Ian Smith in Rhodesia
1978: France attacks the Polisario to defend Mauritania's president
1979: Alhaji Shehu Shagari wins the elections in Nigeria
September 1979: Angola's president Agostinho Neto dies and is succeeded by Jose Eduardo Dos Santos of the MPLA
1979: Francisco Macias Nguema is overthrown in Equatorial Guinea (50,000 have died) by his nephew Teodoro Obiang
1979: Jerry Rawlings leads the revolution in Ghana against corrupt officers
1979: Goukouni Oueddei seizes power in Chad, the first Muslim leader of the country, with help from Libya, starting a civil war that almost destroys the capital
1979: France overthrows Bokassa (after it is revealed that he ordered the massacre of 100 children) and re-installs Dacko as president of Central Africa
1979: Uganda attacks Tanzania, but Tanzania defeats Uganda and ousts president Amin
1979: Denis Sassou Nguesso, supported by Angolan troops, seizes power in Congo Brazzaville
1980: Robert Mugabe wins elections in Rhodesia and declares the independent country of Zimbabwe
1980: A coup deposes Guinea Bissau's president Luis de Almeida Cabral and installs general Joao Bernardo Vieira
1980: Seretse Khama dies and vice-president Ketumile Masire succeeds him as the new president of Botswana
1980: Senghor resigns and Abdou Diouf is elected president of Senegal
1980: Mauritania recognizes the Polisario
1980: Samuel Doe overthrows and kills Tolbert in Liberia (the native population runs the country for the first time in its history)
1980: Obote wins rigged elections in Uganda and Yoweri Museveni starts a guerrilla war
1980: Lamizana of Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) is deposed
1980: Mugabe wins the first free elections in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and creates a one-party socialist state
1980: Libya sends troops to support Chad against the French-backed rebels of Hissene Habre (thousands of civilians die)
1982: North Korean troops help Rhodesia crush a rebellion led by Joshua Nkomo that leaves thousands dead
1982: South Africa builds a nuclear weapon
1982: Moi declares a one-party socialist dictatorship in Kenya
1981: Hissene Habre seizes power in Chad
1981: Andre Kolingba ousts Dacko in Central Africa
1982: Swaziland king Sobhuza II dies, leaving 600 children to contend the throne
1982: Ahidja retires and Paul Biya becomes president of Cameroon
1983: Thomas Sankara seizes power in Upper Volta and changes its name to Burkina Faso
1983: Nimeiri imposes shariah over Sudan
1983: Renamo (supported by Rhodesia and South Africa) starts guerrilla war against Frelimo in Mozambique
1983: Nkomo starts guerrilla warfare against Mugabe, and Mugabe retaliates with mass executions
1983: Christian leader John Garang leads the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA) in a new civil war against the Sudanese government
1983: Shagari overthrown in Nigeria
1984: 900,000 people die in Ethiopia of famine
1984: Haidallah of Mauritania is overthrown by Maaouya Ould Taya
1984: Sekou Toure of Guinea dies and Lansana Conte succeeds him
1984: France sponsors a coup against Cameroon's Biya that fails but kills hundreds
1984: Famine in Mozambique kills 100,000 people
1985: Ibrahim Babangida seizes power in Nigeria
1985: after mass graves of dissidents are discovered, Obote of Uganda is removed in a military coup led by Tito Okello
1985: Nyere of Tanzania retires and is succeeded by Ali Mwinyi
1985: Nimeiri is deposed in Sudan
1986: Machel of Mozambique dies in an airplane crash and is succeeded by Joaquim Chissano
1986: Wole Soyinka is awarded the Nobel Prize, the first one in Africa
1986: Botswana posts the second highest growth rate in the world
1986: Joseph Momoth succeeds Siaka Stevens in Sierra Leone
1986: Museveni's guerrillas conquer Uganda's capital
1986: Dacko creates a one-party state in Central Africa
1986: riots in Zambia stemming from poverty
1986: a successor to king Sobhuza II is chosen in Swaziland, Mswati II
1986: al-Barakat is established in Somalia to facilitate the transfer of money from emigrants abroad to their relatives in Somalia
1987: Ndura Waruinge and Maina Njenga found Mungiki, a religious sect that promotes traditional moral values and the Mau Mau view of African nationalism
1987: Seyni Kountche of Niger dies and Ali Seybou succeeds him
1987: South African troops invade Angola to support Savimbi's rebels
1987: major Pierre Buyoya seizes power in Burundi
1987: Sankara of Burkina Faso is overthrown and executed by Blaise Campaore
1987: Mugabe and Nkomo reach an agreement that ends the civil war in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
1987: the Mungiki sect in Kenya has more than a million members
1987: France expels Libya from Chad
1988: 20,000 Hutus are massacred by Tutsis in Burundi
1988: civil war erupts in Somalia between Barre and the Isaqs (Somaliland)
December 1988: South African and Cuban troops withdraw from Angola
1989: DeKlerk wins national elections in South Africa on a democratic program
1989: Hassan al-Turabi seizes power with a coup and becomes Sudan's Islamist philospher and dictator, intent on building a pure Islamic society
1989: riots erupt in Mauritania between Arabs and blacks, and thousands of blacks are expelled to Senegal
1989: a ceasefire is signed between Morocco and the Polisario
1989: Charles Taylor leads rebels against Doe's government of Liberia
1989: SWAPO wins the first free elections in Namibia
1989: people riot against Didier Ratsiraka's economic policies in Madagascar
1989: Joseph Kony founds the Christian terrorist movement the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)
1990: Namibia becomes independent under president Sam Nujoma
July 1990: The MPLA converts Angola to a market economy
1990: pro-democracy riots in Cote d'Avoire
1990: civil war in Senegal
1990: the Tuaregs of Niger rebel against the government
1990: Tutsi rebels helped by Uganda invade Rwanda but are repelled by Zaire, Belgium and France
1990: Mugabe wins rigged elections in Zimbabwe against Edgar Tekere's pro-capitalist and democratic party
1990: king Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho is deposed by her son Letsie III
1990: Habre of Chad (responsible for the death of 40,000 dissidents) is overthrown by Idriss Deby with help from Libya
1990: Tuaregs revolt against Mali
1990: Nelson Mandela is released from jail in South Africa
1990: Frelimo in Mozambique abandons socialism in favor of capitalism
May 1991: the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, led by Meles Zenawi, removes Mengitsu from power, and the 36-year-old Meles becomes Africa's youngest head of state
1991: Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro wins elections in Cape Verde
1991: Barre is deposed in Somalia but civil war erupts among the Somali clans, while Somaliland declares independence under president Mohamed Ibrahim Egal
1991: Seybou is deposed in Niger
1991: Eritrean rebels conquer Eritrea under Isaias Afwerke
1991: the brutal dictatorship of Mobutu causes riots in Zaire
1991: South Africa repeals the apartheid laws
1991: Traore of Mali is deposed by Amadou Toure
1991: Frederick Chiluba wins the first free elections in Zambia
1991: Foday Sankoh leads an invasion of Sierra Leone by Sierra Leonean dissidents, mercenaries and forces of Liberia's rebel Charles Taylor

1992: Chissano of Mozambique and Renamo leader Alfonso Dhaklama sign a peace agreement that ends the civil war (900,000 people have been killed)
1992: Valentine Strasser deposes Joseph Momoh and seizes power in Sierra Leone
1992: the United Nation sends troops (led by the USA) in Somalia to stop fighting by clans that has claimed 300.000 lives, but local warlords led by Muhammad Aideed expel them
1992: Albert Zafy wins the first free elections in Madagascar
1992: Biya wins rigged elections in Cameroon
1992: Alpha Konare wins the first free elections in Mali
1992: Jose Eduardo Dos Santos of the MPLA wins the first free elections in Angola, but Savimbi refuses to recognize the result and resumes the civil war
1992: Pascal Lissouba wins the first free elections in Congo Brazzaville
1992: Jerry Rawlings wins the first democratic elections in Ghana
1993: Eritreans vote to become independent
1993: Houphouet-Boigny dies after ruling Cote d'Avoire for 33 years, and is succeeded by Henri Konan Bedie
1993: Bongo barely wins the first free elections in Gabon
1993: end of the civil war in Senegal
1993: Felix Patassie wins the first free elections in Central Africa
1993: Moi wins the first democratic elections in Kenya, despite having destroyed its economy
1993: Mahamane Ousmane wins the first free elections in Niger
1993: Melchior Ndadaye wins the elections in Burundi and becomes the first Hutu president, but is assassinated by Tutsis in a coup that leaves thousands dead and starts a civil war that would kill 200.000 people
1993: Moshood Abiola wins the elections but general Sani Abacha seizes power in Nigeria
1994: Nelson Mandela wins the first free elections in South Africa and becomes its first black president
1994: South Africa's right-wing movement AWB, led by supremacist leader Eugene Terreblanche, carries out a bombing campaign that kills 21 people
1994: Yahya JAmmeh deposes Jawara in Gambia
1994: a moderate Hutu, Cyprien Ntaryamira, is appointed president of Burundi, but is assassinated by Hutu extremists with the president of Rwanda, Juvenbal Habyarimana
1994: Jean Kambanda leads the government of Rwanda and Theoneste Bagosora defines its strategy while 800,000 Tutsis are slaughtered by Hutus
1994: Tutsi rebels conquer Rwanda, led by Paul Kagame
1994: Banda is defeated in Malawi's first free elections and Bakili Muluzi becomes president
1994: South Africa has the highest rate of murders in the world (67 per 100,000 people)
1995: Benjamin Mkapa wins the first free elections in Tanzania
1995: Meles Zenawi wins elections in Ethiopia
1995: Konare's government of Mali signs a peace agreement with the Tuareg rebels
1995: Abacha executes oppposition leaders in Nigeria
1995: the Ebola virus kills entire villages in Congo (Zaire)
1995: white palaeontologist Richard Leakey leads the opposition in Kenya
1996: a meningitis epidemics kills thousands of people in Burkina Faso
1996: Ahmed Tejan Kabbah wins elections in Sierra Leone, but is deposed by general Johnny Paul Koroma
1996: warlord Muhammad Aideed of Somalia dies and is succeeded by his son Hussein
1996: Zafy is deposed and Didier Ratsiraka wins the new elections in Madagascar
1996: Rwanda invades Zaire to fight Hutu militias
1996: Mugabe wins rigged elections in Zimbabwe after all other candidates withdraw
1996: colonel Ibrahim Mainassara seizes power in Niger
1996: a ferry sinks in Lake Victoria killing about 600 people
1996: Museveni wins the first free elections in Uganda
1996: Pierre Buyoya seizes power again in Burundi, while Hutu rebels conduct a guerrilla war that kills 100,000 people
1996: Army unites rebel in Central Africa
1997: Patasse and the rebel soldiers sign a peace treaty in Central Africa
1997: Charles Taylor wins the elections in Liberia
1997: Kofi Annan of Ghana becomes the secretary general of the United Nations
1997: the government of Niger and the Tuareg rebels sign a peace treaty
1997: Somali factions sign a peace treaty
1997: Laurent-Desire Kabila, helped by Rwanda, wins Zaire's civil war while Mobutu is abroad, and JeanPierre Bemba and other Mobutu officials flee the capital
1997: Rwandan troops, pursuing Hutu militias, invade Congo (Zaire)
1997: Denis Sassou-Nguesso becomes president of Congo Brazzaville after military confrontation
1998: Ethiopia and Eritrean fight a border war
1998: Masire retires and vice-president Festus Gontebanye succeeds him as president of Botswana
1998: Nigerian troops restore president Tejan Kabbah in Sierra Leone, but Foday Sankoh continues the civil war
1998: an oil pipeline explodes in Nigeria killing more than 500 people
1998: Civil war in Chad between the forces of president Deby and the rebels led by Youssouf Togoimi
1998: Jean Kambanda of Rwanda is convicted of genocide by the United Nations tribunal
1998: Namibia, Angola and Zimbabwe send troops to the Congo to support Laurent Kabila against rebels backed by Uganda and Rwanda
1998: Nigerian dictator Abacha dies
1998: the U.S.A. bombs Sudan for helping terrorists and Afghanistan's camps where Osama bin Laden trains his militants
1998: two truck bombs destroyed the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, killing 213 people in Kenya and 11 in Tanzania
1998: Puntland declares its independence from Somalia under the presidency of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
1999: Olusegun Obasanjo wins democratic elections in Nigeria
1999: A coup deposes Guinea Bissau's dictator Joao Bernardo Vieira
1999: Umar al-Bashir has Turabi arrested in Sudan
1999: general Robert Guei seizes power in Cote d'Avoire (Ivory Coast)
1999: Liberia supports rebels of Sierra Leone led by Sam Bockarie, a deputy of Foday Sankoh
1999: Mainassara of Niger is assassinated and succeeded by Daouda Wanke
1999: Thabo Mbeki wins the elections in South Africa and succeeds Mandela as president
1999: South African president Thabo Mbeki declares AIDS drugs dangerous
1999: Tandja Mamadou wins democratic elections in Niger
2000: 2,000 people are killed in fighting between Muslims and Christians in the Nigerian city of Kanduna
2000: mass killing in Kanungu, Uganda, is carried out by members of Joseph Kibwetere's Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God (more than 700 dead)
2001: Opposition leader John Kufuor wins the elections in Ghana and becomes its new president, while Rawlings retires peacefully
2001: Pedro Pires wins elections in Cape Verde
2000: Abdoulaye Wade wins the first free elections in Senegal and replaces Diouf
2000: rebel Foday Sankoh is captured in Sierra Leone, but civil war continues
2000: the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), supported by Guinea, is formed by Liberian refugees and exiles to fight Charles Taylor's government
2000: Squatters seize hundreds of white-owned farms in Zimbabwe
2000: Islamic law ("sharia") is introduced in several states of Nigeria
2000: Laurent Gbagbo wins rigged elections in Cote d'Avoire (Ivory Coast)
2000: peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea
2000: the USA approves a law (AGOA) to eliminate tariffs on hundreds of items for African countries
2000: 425 people are infected by the ebola virus in Uganda and more than half of them die
2001: millionaire business man Marc Ravalomanana wins the elections in Madagascar
2001: the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) dissolves and is replaced by the African Union
2001: Riots in Nairobi's slums
2001: Laurent Kabila of Zaire (Congo) is killed by a bodyguard and succeeded by his son Joseph Kabila
2001: the Sudanese government arrests several leaders of the Islamist party (Popular National Congress), including its leader Hassan al-Turabi
2001: Nigerian army soldiers kill 200 civilians in retaliation for the murder of soldiers in Benue state
2001: an Ebola epidemic spreads in Congo Brazzaville and Gabon
2001: the party of Mauritania's president Maaouiya Ould Taya, the Democratic and Social Republican Party (PRDS), wins democratic elections
2001: African nations launch the "New Plan for Africa's Development" (Nepad) to foster progress and democracy
2001: Following Al Qaeda's terrorist attacks, the USA shuts down al-Barakat causing the economic collapse of Somalia
2002: 100 people are killed in the Nigerian city of Lagos during riots between Muslims and Christians
Sep 2002: A militia from the Ngiti tribe carries out a massacre at Nyankunde Christian Hospital in Congo, killing more than one thousand people
2002: Mohamed Ibrahim Egal of Somaliland dies and is succeeded by Dahir Riyale Kahin
2002: Ivory Coast's president Laurent Gbagbo accepts to share power with Alassane Ouattara, leader of the opposition, but soldiers mutiny, form three rebel groups and start a civil war, splitting the country between the Muslim north (rebels) and the Christian south (government)
2002: France sends "peacekeeping" troops to Ivory Coast
2002: Somali factions sign a truce deal after decades of civil war
2002: almost 2,000 people die in Senegal when a ferry capsizes
2002: Togoimi and Deby sign a peace deal, ending the civil war in Chad
2002: Alpha Konare steps down as president of Mali and Amadou Toumani Toure wins the new elections
2002: Jonas Savimbi, leader of UNITA, is killed and the Angolan civil war ends
2002: Levy Mwanawasa wins elections in Zambia and becomes the new president
2002: 90 Somalis die on a boat from Somalia to Aden
2002: 200 people are killed in the Nigerian city of Kanduna by Islamic fanatics protesting against a Miss World pageant
2002: Mugabe loses national elections in Zimbabwe but declares himself the winner and approves the "acquisition" of thousands of white farms
2002: France sends troops to restore order in Cote d'Avoir, following an armed uprising
2002: "Ninja" rebels, led by Pastor Ntumi, stage a rebellion against government of Congo Brazzaville
2002: the Burundi government and the Hutu rebels sign a ceasefire agreement
TM, ®, Copyright © 2005 :www.scaruffi.com/service/terms.html>Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
2002: the Sudanese government and the Christian rebels of the SPLA sign a ceasefire agreement
2002: Francois Bozize leads a rebellion against Patasse in Central Africa, and Libya sends troops to defend the government
2002: the Congolese Liberation Movement carries out cannibalism, rape, torture and murder in the Congo province of Ituri
2002: about 42 million people are infected with AIDS (70% in Africa), 3.1 million people died of AIDS in 2002 alone, and half of them are women
2003: Mwai Kibaki wins the elections in Kenya and replaces Moi
2003: Mungiki cult members kill 23 people in Kenya
2003: Francois Bozize captures the capital of Central Africa and deposes Patasse
2003: Hundreds of people are killed during ethnic fights in the oil-producing region of the Niger Delta in Nigeria
2003: fierce battles between the army of Burundi and rebels of the Forces for the Defense of Democracy
2003: both Sam Bockarie and Johnny Paul Koroma flee from Sierra Leone to Liberia
2003: Hutu politician Dominitien Ndayizeye becomes the new leader of Burundi while Hutu rebels of the Forces for National Democracy (FNL) attack the capital killing hundreds of people
2003: 1,000 people die in fierce tribal fighting in eastern Congo (Zaire) as Ugandan troops pull out of Congo
2003: Charles Taylor of Liberia is indicted for war crimes by a United Nations court, while LURD soldiers close in on the capital, and is forced to step down by USA pressure and take asylum in Nigeria
2003: Isaias Samakuva is elected leader of Angola's former rebel movement UNITA
2003: A transitional government of national reconciliation is created in Congo/Zaire (president Joseph Kabila, Abdoulaye Yerodia Ndombasi for the old Kinshasa government, Azarias Ruberwa for the Rwandan-backed RCD-Goma, the largest rebel group, Jean-Pierre Bemba for the Ugandan-backed Congolese Liberation Movement (MLC), the second largest rebel group, and Arthur Z'Ahidi Ngoma for the Kinshasa political opposition).
2003: rebel Foday Sankoh of Sierra Leone dies in jail
2003: the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), led by Joseph Kony, responsible for abducting thousands of children during the civil war, kills about 60 people in Uganda
2003: more than 250 people die when a boat capsizes in the Democratic Republic of Congo
2003: Domitien Ndayizeye is appointed president of Burundi by a coalition government in an effort to end the civil war
2003: former Madagascar prime minister Tantely Andrianarivo is sentenced to 12 years of hard labour for abuse of office
2003: 20,000 murders are committed in South Africa in one year, the second highest rate in the world after Colombia
2004: the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) kills 192 people in Uganda (february)
2004: Ethiopia's economy grows about 10% yearly between 2004 and 2011
2004: Angola's economy grows 17% a year on average between 2004 and 2008
2004: a woman, Tanzania's Getrude Mangella, is elected president of the Pan African parliamen
2004: the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) kills 42 people in Uganda (may)
2004: hundreds of Muslims are massacred by Christians in Yelwa, Nigeria
2004: Arab militias carry out massive atrocities in Sudan's Darfur region
2004: Sudan and John Garang's Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) sign a peace deal, ending a civil war that cost the lives of two million people
2004: Hutu rebels massacre 156 Congolese Tutsi refugees in Burundi
2004: France dectroys the entire airforce of Ivory Coast, guilty of accidentally killing a few of its soldiers
2004: 39.4 million people have AIDS worldwide
2004: The government and the rebels of Senegal make peace
2004: Djibouti becomes a counter-terrorism base for the USA
Aug 2004: Agathon Rwasa's militia massacres 152 Banyamulenge Congolese refugees at Gatumba in Burundi
2005: Namibia president Sam Nujama retires and is succeeded by Hifikepunye Pohamba
2005: Former dictator Joao Bernardo Vieira wins elections in Guinea Bissau
2005: Riots following disputed elections in Ethiopia won again by Meles Zenawi cause about 200 deaths
2005: Niamey has 750,000 people, three times what it had in 1980
2005: Gnassingbe Eyadema dies and his son Faure Gnassingbe but is forced by international pressures to resign
2005: A deadly ebola-like virus kills 174 people in two weeks in Angola
2005: More than one million people are left homeless in Zimbabwe after police destroys their illegal homes
2005: Burundi's former Hutu rebel group FDD, led by Pierre Nkurunziza, win the first free parliamentary elections in Burundi
2005: bandits raid the village of Turbi in Kenya killing 76 people
2005: a miiltary council overthrows Mauritania's president Maaouiya Ould Taya
2005: Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf wins the first democratic elections in Liberia and becomes the first woman elected head of state in Africa
2005: Rebels supported by Sudan kill more than 100 people in Chad
2005: Jakaya Kikwete wins presidential elections in Tanzania
2005: Bitange Ndemo is placed in charge of information technology in Kenya and launches a program of modernization
2006: Government troops carry out ethnic cleansing in the north of the Central African Republic
2006: former dictator Charles Taylor is returned by Nigeria to Liberia where he is wanted for war crimes
2006: Nigeria pays off its foreign debt, the first African nation to do so
2006: Islamists of the Union of Islamic Courts led by Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed take control of Somalia's capital for a few months, but Ethiopia helps the Somali government of Mohamad Ghedi regain control of it and the USA bombs the Islamists
2006: Chad repels an attack by Janjaweed rebels on its capital, N'Djamena
Sep 2006: Agathon Rwasa signs a peace deal with Burundi's government
2006: First democratic elections are held in Congo Zaire, won by president Joseph Kabila
2006: The Ugandan government signs a truce with the Lord's Resistance Army, that moves to nearby countries
2006: A pipeline blast kills 260 in Nigeria
2007: The government of Ivory Coast and the rebels sign a peace accord
2007: Ernest Koroma wins democratic elections and becomes president of Sierra Leone
2007: Inflation reaches 1,594% in Zimbabwe
2007: Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi wins the first democratic elections in Mauritania
2007: Africa's economy grows 5.7% yearly
2007: Battles between Ethiopian soldiers and Islamists kill more than 1,000 people in Somalia
2007: Janjaweed rebels kill 400 civilians of Chad near the border with Sudan
2007: a French judge accuses Paul Kagame of having plotted the killing of former president Juvenbal Habyarimana that sparked the genocide of 1994
2007: Umaru Yar'Adua of the north wins elections in Nigeria and Obasanjo retires
2007: 74 people are killed in Ethiopia by the Ogaden National Liberation Front
2007: Kenyan police kill 21 members of the banned Mungiki sect
2007: Kenya's Safaricom launches the mobile payment system M-Pesa
2007: Riots erupt between Shhites and Sunnis in Sokoto, Nigeria
2007: Ebola outbreak in Congo Zaire
2007: Tuareg rebels of Niger begin military operations under the name Niger Movement for Justice
2007: Southern Africa's largest shopping mall opens in Soweto, South Africa
2007: Gnassingbe Eyadema dies and Togo holds its first democratic elections
2007: Laurent Nkunda leads a rebellion in eastern Congo to protect Tutsi tribes from Hutu bandits
2007: riots erupt in Kenya after rigged elections get Mwai Kibaki reelected as president of Kenya over opposition leader Raila Odinga (1,500 people die)
2007: 5.4 million people have died in Congo since 1998 due to war, famine and disease
2008: Kenya's president Mwai Kibaki and opposition leader Raila Odinga form a coalition government with the latter joining as prime minister
2008: The last rebel group surrenders in Burundi
2008: Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe's ruling ZANU-PF party loses parliamentary elections for the first time in 28 years but Mugabe intimidates opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai to withdraw from the presidential run-off, while unemployment reaches 80% and inflation 100,000%
2008: The USA bombs Somalia to kill an Al Qaeda leader, Aden Hashi Ayro
2008: Zimbabwean inflation hits 2.2 million per cent
2008: A roadside bomb kills more than 20 people in Somalia's capital Mogadishu
2008: A military coup led by general Mohamed Ould Abdelaziz ousts Mauritania's democratically elected president Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi
2008: Zambia's president Levy Mwanawasa dies and is succeeded by vice-president Rupiah Banda
2008: Zimbabwe's inflation hits 11,250,000%
2008: The ruling Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (MPLA) wins parliamentary elections in Angola
September 2008: Islamic extremists kill 12 soldiers in Mauritania
September 2008: South Africa's president Mbeki resigns following a scandal and is succeeded by Kgalema Motlanthe
October 2008: Several car bombs kill 29 people in Hargeisa, Somaliland
November 2008: A study by the Harvard School of Public Health claims that former South African president Thabo Mbeki is responsible for 330,000 AIDS-related deaths
November 2008: Somali pirates seize a Saudi oil tanker
November 2008: Muslim riots erupt after a Christian-backed party is declared the winner of elections in Nigeria's Plateau state
November 2008: Hundreds of people are killed in the central Nigerian city of Jos during fights between Christians and Muslims
December 2008: Guinea's president Lansana Conte dies and the military led by Moussa Dadis Camara seize power
December 2008: More than 600 people are killed at the border with Congo/Zaire by Ugandan rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army
December 2008: Opposition candidate John Atta Mills wins a tight presidential election in Ghana
December 2008: Somali pirates, mostly based in Puntland, collect at least $120 million in 2008 after seizing dozens of foreign ships
Dec 2008: Zimbabwe's inflation reaches 200% a day (230 million percent a year)
2008: South Africa establishes the "Joburg Art Fair", the largest art fair of Africa
Jan 2009: Zimbabwe adopts multiple hard currencies to replace the Zimbabwe dollar
2009: Erik Hersman founds the iHub in Kenya for high-tech startups
2009: N'djamena has almost one million people, twice what it had in 1993
Jan 2009: Abdirahman Mohamed Mohamud "Farole" is elected president of Puntland
jan 2009: Somalia's president Abdullahi Yusuf resigns amid chaos, Ethiopia pulls out of Somalia and Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed is elected president of Somalia while the Islamist movement al-Shabab led by sheik Muktar takes control of the south of the country and other Islamist groups join in the movement Hizbul Islam (who most powerful figure is warlord Hassan Dahir Aweys) to fight the Somali government of Sheikh Sharif Ahmed
jan 2009: Madagascar's president Marc Ravalomanana fire's Antananarivo's mayor Andry Rajoelina, starting riots that cause the death of more than 100 people
jan 2009: The Rwandan government, cooperating with the government of Congo, arrests former Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda, who is succeeded by Bosco Ntaganda at the head of the CNDP
feb 2009: Zimbabwe's opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai is sworn in as prime minister in a unity government with president Robert Mugabe
mar 2009: Madagascar's president Ravalomanana resigns and is replaced by opposition leader Andry Rajoelina, a former disc jockey turned media magnate, following anti-government riots that kill more than 100 people
mar 2009: Congolese rebel leader Bosco Ntaganda signs a peace agreement with the Congolese government and becomes a general in the army
mar 2009: Bissau's president Vieira is shot dead by rebel soldiers
apr 2009: Islamist opposition leader Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys returns to Somalia after two years in exile
may 2009: Islamist groups al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam launch a joint attack to oust Somalian president Sheik Sharif, laying a siege to Mogadishu that costs hundreds of lives
may 2009:Jacob Zuma is elected president of South Africa
jun 2009: president Bongo of Gabon dies and is replaced by Rose Francine Rogombe
jun 2009: a minister and 35 people are killed by a suicide car bomb attack in Somalia
jul 2009: protesters demonstrate against Niger's president Tandja Mamadou who wants to extend his term as president
jul 2009: attacks on police stations by Boko Haram, an anti-Western Islamic movement led by Mohammed Yusuf, leave hundreds dead in Nigeria's northern states, and Yusuf is killed by the police
jul 2009: Sub-Saharan Africa's main exporters of oil are Angola, Nigeria, Sudan and Equatorial Guinea
2009: The war in Darfur between rebels and Sudanese government ends
Sep 2009: Ali Ben Bongo, son of El Hadj Omar Bongo, is elected president in rigged elections, igniting riots
Sep 2009: Guinean troops kill more than 150 people during opposition protests against Moussa Dadis Camara
2009: More than 2,000 people are killed in ethnic clashes in South Sudan's Jonglei state
Dec 2009: A suicide bomb attack in Somalia kills 20 people including four government ministers
Dec 2009: Madagascar's president Andry Rajoelina appoints a military prime minister, Vital-Albert Camille
Dec 2009: Tens of members of the religious cult Kala Kato are killed in riots in the northern Nigerian state of Bauchi
2009: More than 3,000 white farmers have been murdered in South Africa since the end of apartheid in 1994
2009: Nigerian forces attack the stronghold of the Islamic group Boko Haram in Maiduguri
2009: Bending to pressures from mainland China, South Africa refuses to issue a visa to the Dalai Lama to attend an international peace conference
Jan 2010: More than 200 people die in two days of clashes between Christian and Muslim gangs in the Nigerian city of Jos
Jan 2010: The Guinean army surrenders power to a civilian, Jean-Marie Dore
Feb 2010: Nigeria's ill president Umaru Yar'Adua hands power over to his vice-president, Goodluck Jonathan, from the south
Feb 2010: The army overthrows Niger's president Mamadou Tandja, who was trying to extend his term in office
Feb 2010: 500 people are killed, mostly women and children, when Islamic pastoralists attack a village south of Jos in Nigeria
May 2010: Human-rights activist Floribert Chebeya is killed in Congo Kinshasa
May 2010: May 2010, with over 400 deaths, is the bloodiest month in Darfur (Sudan) since peacekeeping forces were deployed in december 2007
Jun 2010: Pierre Nkurunziza wins Burundi's rigged elections in which he was the only candidate and opposition leader Agathon Rwasa goes into hiding
Jun 2010: A terrorist attack by Somali Islamists of al-Shabab kills more than 70 people in Uganda
Aug 2010: Kenya adopts a new constitution after a referendum
Aug 2010: Rebels gang-rape more than 240 women in Congo Kinshasa
Aug 2010: Islamists kill 30 people at a hotel in Somalia's capital
Sep 2010: Car bombs kill eight people in Nigeria's capital Abuja
Nov 2010: Somali-USA citizen Mohamed Abdullah Mohamed becomes Somalia's new prime minister
Nov 2010: Opposition leader Alpha Conde wins presidential elections in Guinea
Nov 2010: Opposition leader Alassane Ouattara wins presidential elections in Ivory Coast but Laurent Gbagbo is sworn in again as president, causing riots
Dec 2010: Hizbul Islam (The Party of Islam) surrenders its Mogadishu territory to the Shabab militia in Somalia
Dec 2010: Muslims attack Christians near Jos, Nigeria, during Christmas celebrations killing more than 80
Dec 2010: Pirates take a record 1181 hostages in 2010, of which 1016 off the coast of Somalia, hijacking 53 ships of which 49 off the coast of Somalia
Jan 2011: South Sudan votes for secession from Sudan
2011: Dadaab in Kenya near the border with Somalia is the world's largest refugee camp with more than 500,000 people
Feb 2011: Congo's colonel Kibibi Mutware is convicted of sending his troops to rape, beat up and loot from the population of Fizi on New Year's Day
Feb 2011: African Union peacekeepers, Ethiopian troops and Somali government militias stage a coordinated offensive against the Islamist group Shabab
Mar 2011: About 1,000 people are killed as rebels attack the government in Ivory Coast and France bombs government troops
Apr 2011: French troops arrest Ivory Coast's president Gbagbo and deliver him to his opponent Alassane Ouattara, who becomes the new president of the country
Apr 2011: Goodluck Jonathan wins national elections in Nigeria
May 2011: Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram carries out terrorist attacks in the northern city of Bauchi that kill 14 people
Jun 2011: The first suicide bombing in Nigeria's history, claimed by Islamist group Boko Haram, kills eight people, and bombs set by the Islamic group Boko Haram kill 25 people in the northeastern Nigerian city of Maiduguri
Jun 2011: Sudan kills hundreds of rebels in the Nuba mountains of Southern Kordofan state and then disposes of the bodies in mass graves
Jun 2011: Renegade Congolese soldiers rape 121 women in the eastern village of Nakiele
Jul 2011: 197 people drown in the Red Sea when a boat carrying Sudanese migrants to Saudi Arabia sinks
Jul 2011: South Sudan becomes an independent country with capital in Juba and run by Salva Kiir Mayardit
Aug 2011: The Murle tribe kills 600 men and women of the Nuer tribe in South Sudan over a cattle dispute
Aug 2011: A car bomb by Boko Haram kills 18 people at the United Nations building in the Nigerian capital Abuja
Sep 2011: About 200 people die when a ship sinks off the coast of Zanzibar
Sep 2011: A fire kills 61 people in a slum of Kenya's capital Nairobi
Sep 2011: Agathon Rwasa's militia massacres 36 government supporters in Burundi in retaliation for the government's campaign of targeted assassinations of the opposition
Oct 2011: More than 60 people are killed by a suicide bomb in the Somali capital of Mogadishu
Oct 2011: Liberian-born women Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Leymah Gbowee win the Nobel Peace Prize
Oct 2011: Kenya sends troops into Somalia after al-Shabab militants kidnap foreign nationals in Kenya
Oct 2011: The world's population is 7 billion up from 1 billion in 1850 and less than 3 billion in 1950.
2011: Malaria kills a child every 45 seconds in Africa
Oct 2011: Michael Sata, who campaigned to protect workers from exploitation by mainland China, wins presidential elections in Zambia
Nov 2011: Multiple coordinated attacks by Boko Haram in Damaturu and Maiduguri (northeastern Nigeria) kill at least 63 people
Dec 2011: North Sudan kills Khalil Ibrahim, the leader of Darfur's main rebel group, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)
Dec 2011: Boko Haram kills 40 people in Nigeria on Christmas Day
Dec 2011: More than 150 people are held hostage in Somalia, mostly sailors from foreign ships seized for ransom by pirates
Jan 2012: Boko Haram kills scores of Christians in northern Nigeria
Jan 2012: Three huge bomb explosions target police and government offices in Nigeria's second-largest city Kano killing 185 people
Jan 2012: Tuareg rebels stage a rebellion against Mali
Jan 2012: The Nuer tribe kills 1000 men and women of the Murie tribe in South Sudan in retaliation for the 2011 massacre
Mar 2012: A suicide car bomber kills 10 people at a Catholic church in Jos, Nigeria
Mar 2012: Mali's democratically elected president Amadou Toumani Toure is deposed by rebel soldiers under the command of Amadou Sanogo who then surrenders power to parliament speaker Dioncounda Traore while Tuareg rebels occupy the north of the country
Mar 2012: Opposition leader Macky Sall wins democratic elections in Senegal
Mar 2012: Congolese general Bosco Ntaganda starts his own militia backed by Rwanda, M23
Apr 2012: Malawi's president Bingu wa Mutharika dies and is replaced by female vice-president Joyce Banda
Apr 2012: A suicide car bomber kills 38 Christians in Kaduna, Nigeria, on Easter sunday
Apr 2012: South Sudan invades Sudan's Heglig oil field
May 2012: Tuareg rebels and Al Qaeda declare the independent state of Azawad in northern Mali
May 2012: Church bombings kill at least 15 people in Nigeria
Jun 2012: Islamists destroy ancient tombs Mali's Timbuktu
Jun 2012: Islamists kill 15 Christians in churches in Kenya
Jul 2012: Islamists kill 56 Christians in Christian villages in north Nigeria
Jul 2012: More than 100 people have die near the Nigerian village of Okogbe while trying to steal fuel from a petrol tanker that crashed
Jul 2012: Ghana's president John Atta Mills dies and is succeeded by vice-president John Dramani Mahama
Aug 2012: At least 19 people are killed in a gun attack on a church in the central Nigerian city of Kogi
Aug 2012: About 60 miners die in northeastern Congo
Aug 2012: 34 striking miners are killed by police in South Africa
Aug 2012: Ethiopian prime minister Meles Zenawi and his replaced by his deputy Hailemariam Desalegn
Aug 2012: At least 112 people are killed in ethnic clashes between the Orma and Pokomo groups in south-eastern Kenya
Aug 2012: Mali forms new unity government under interim prime minister Modibo Diarra
Aug 2012: The first Somali parliament in two decades is inaugurated in Mogadishu and Hassan Mohamud is elected president
Sep 2012: Gunmen kill 26 people (mostly students) in college hostel in Mubi, north-eastern Nigeria
Nov 2012: More than 30 police officers are killed by villagers in Samburu County of Kenya over cattle theft
Nov 2012: Jean-Marie Runiga's M23 militia seizes the town of Goma in eastern Congo/Zaire
Nov 2012: Former rebels of the Central African Republic create the Seleka coalition against president Francois Bozize and occupy the north of the country
Jan 2013: France attacks the Islamists that rule northern Mali
Mar 2013: Uhuru Kenyatta wins presidential elections in Kenya

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